Frequently Asked Questions about the Color Vowel® Chart
Who developed the COLOR VOWEL Chart?
The COLOR VOWEL Chart was initially conceived by Karen Taylor in 1999 after seeing a presentation on the use of key words to teach pronunciation. Her first chart was made with poster board, construction paper, and Velcro, and Karen’s international teaching assistants appreciated the way it helped them to pronounce academic and technical vocabulary. In 2000, Karen met Shirley Thompson. Quickly recognizing their shared interest in pronunciation, multi-modal instruction and brain-based learning, Karen and Shirley started meeting regularly to share ideas and further develop the Color Vowel Chart.
Karen and Shirley perfected the Chart with the input of hundreds of ESL students, their teachers, and MA TESOL candidates at American University, George Washington University, the University of Maryland College Park, and the Arlington Education & Employment Center (REEP). Dr. Robin Barr, Linguist In Residence at American University, has worked with Karen and Shirley over the years to help ensure that the Color Vowel Chart is both linguistically accurate and accessible to teachers and learners.
Is The Color Vowel Chart copyright protected?
Yes. What this means is that:
- You may not reproduce the Color Vowel Chart in any form without written permission from the authors, Karen Taylor and Shirley Thompson. Contact us to request permission. (Fear not– we are friendly, and we will appreciate hearing from you.)
- You may, however, show live web images or screen captures of our audio interactive Color Vowel Chart for the purpose of giving a presentation (e.g. in a PowerPoint). If you want your audience to receive their own copy of the Chart, please order materials through our Shop.
- Karen Taylor and Shirley Thompson should be credited in all oral presentation, written article, educational materials, etc. that make reference to the Color Vowel Chart.
A bibliographic citation for The Color Vowel Chart should read:
- Taylor, K., and Thompson, S. (1999, 2015). The Color Vowel Chart. Santa Fe NM: English Language Training Solutions. https://www.colorvowelchart.org.
Is the Color Vowel® Chart a trademarked name?
Yes. The phrase “Color Vowel” is a Registered Trademark. When referring to the Color Vowel Chart in an article or document, the trademark symbol ‘‘®’’ should be placed at the upper right corner of the trademarked phrase (“Color Vowel”) in the most prominent place at first usage, and the following trademark attribution notice must be prominently visible: ‘‘Color Vowel® is a registered trademark of English Language Training Solutions (Santa Fe NM). www.ELTS.solutions”. If you or your program wish to include the Color Vowel Chart on a webpage or other web-based document, it should be linked to our website with the following URL: www.colorvowelchart.org.
Who uses The Color Vowel Chart?
The Color Vowel Chart is used across the US and around the world by English language teachers and learners at the K-12 level, in Intensive English Programs, in Adult Education programs, and in MA TESOL and certificate programs, as well as by speech therapists, reading specialists, pronunciation/accent trainers, dialect coaches, and choral directors. The U.S. Department of State’s Office of English Language Programs started distributing The Color Vowel Chart around the world through their Regional English Language Officers in 2013, and the Chart was is featured in the new U.S. Peace Corps TEFL Certificate training program. Learn more about these projects.
Which version should I use? We offer two versions of The Color Vowel Chart: the Key Word Version and the IPA Version.
- The Key Word Version is our recommended version. It is especially appropriate for those who work with adult learners, low-literacy learners, and K-12 learners– those for whom having to learn a phonetic alphabet may detract from the larger purpose of recognizing and practicing the vowel sounds of American English.
- The IPA Version (IPA refers to the International Phonetic Alphabet) contains the added feature of phonetic symbols. The IPA Version is useful with learners who are already familiar with phonetic symbols and is most often used in TESOL education, including applied linguistics courses and teaching methodology courses.
Which variety should I use?
We offer two varieties of The Color Vowel Chart:
- Our original Chart featuring “AUBURN”, and
- Our Western U.S. Variety featuring “ORANGE”.
- Read this article to help you decide which Variety is best for your and your learners.
Does the shape of the Color Vowel™ Chart mean something?
Yes. The basic shape of the Color Vowel™ Chart refers to the traditional linguistic vowel chart. In practical terms, the shape of the Chart represents the vowel sounds according to how they are produced as a combination of jaw and tongue positioning. To learn more about the relevance of the shape of the Chart, watch our video of Color Vowel Yoga.
Can young learners benefit from the Color Vowel Chart?
Absolutely. Young language learners (and native speakers too!) benefit from the meaningful use of color and the absence of additional terminology (such as the misleading reference to ‘long’ and ‘short’ vowels) as they learn to recognize relationships between how words sound and how words are spelled. (Hint: instead of referring to “long” and “short” vowels, try identifying sounds as “moving” (for “long”) and “non-moving” (for “short”) vowels.)
What about low-beginning or low-literacy students?
For beginning and lower level students, the Color Vowel Chart is particularly powerful. You can indicate the vowel sound of a word simply by pointing to the ‘color’ and repeating the word (teacher, GREEN TEA, teacher). Our mantra for teachers, especially those who work with low-proficiency students, is don’t talk about the Chart– just use it. With more advanced students, we advise waiting for them to ask questions about the Chart, as student-produced questions indicate that learners are ready to have a metalinguistic conversation about the Chart.
What do you mean when you say that a word has a ‘color’? What if a world has several vowels?
It is important to start with the understanding that every English word has exactly one syllable that receives primary stress. The word potato, for example, has three syllables, but it’s the second syllable that receives the primary stress: poTAto. Students coming from languages with more “even” stress (known as syllable-timed languages) may not perceive the primary stress and will therefore not produce stress. By identifying a word’s ‘color’ (the vowel quality of the stressed syllable), we’re helping students master an essential aspect of spoken English. (The word potato is therefore GRAY.)
What if a student (or teacher) is color blind?
Though color is an obvious feature of the Color Vowel Chart, one’s visual perception of color quality is not necessary for understanding and making use of the Chart. Rather, the key word phrases and key images are the central feature of the Chart (rather than the visual color), as each key word phrase features the target vowel sounds (e.g. GREEN TEA = /iy/). Teach with the black-line version of the Color Vowel Chart, and one can quickly appreciate that color actually plays a secondary role in the Chart as a visual organizer for the sounds of spoken English.
Why not just use phonetic symbols?
That’s an easy one! Phonetic symbols are great for linguists and teachers, but often unnecessarily confusing for students and difficult to talk about. Plus, they add another layer of complexity to an already challenging vowel system that students need to learn. The use of colors and words together are a simple yet powerful mnemonic.
What if my students already know about phonetic symbols?
If your students already know a phonetic system, that’s great! By assigning the colors of the Color Vowel Chart to their phonetic symbols, they can now talk about vowel quality without having to write the phonetic symbol for all to see. They can even write the symbol they know on the student version of the chart.
What if my (students’) textbook uses different IPA symbols?
Keep in mind that the Color Vowel Chart simply serves as a conceptual overlay that makes it easier for everyone to identify and talk about vowel quality. If your textbook uses different symbols than our “IPA Version” of the chart, then go with the “Key Word Version” of the chart.
Why are your phonetic symbols different from others I’ve seen?
We worked with a phonologist to use symbols that most simply represent what happens with vowel sounds. You’ll notice that all of the vowels that move– GREEN, GRAY, WHITE, BLUE, BROWN, ROSE, TURQUOISE– are represented by a vowel plus a superscript /y/ or /w/. (These “moving” vowels are comprise tense vowels, diphthongs, and glides.)
By noticing the superscript, one can easily know which vowels “move” and in what direction. For example ROSE moves toward /w/. GRAY moves toward /y/. Those that don’t move – BLACK, RED, SILVER, MUSTARD, OLIVE, AUBURN, WOODEN, and PURPLE – are represented by a single symbol.
How do I use the /r/ that appears at the top of the chart?
Just above PURPLE, you’ll notice a watermark /r/. We include this to remind teacher and learner that the vowel sound in PURPLE is a “cross-over” sound in that it is nearly identical to the vowel-like consonant /r/ sound that characterizes American English. In The Color Vowel Chart, the /r/ symbol is handy for teaching ‘r-controlled’ vowels. Read more about teaching r-controlled vowels in our blog.
Do you have a question about the Color Vowel Chart that isn’t answered here?
You can ask questions about the Color Vowel Chart and how to teach with the Chart at our free monthly Q&A session. For questions related to use, training, or other particular needs, please contact us.